MIA: Marxist Historical-Subjects: The German Revolution: 1918-1923

red army

of the German Revolution


An archive dedicated to the documentation, analysis and interpretation of the events surrounding the German workers revolutions of 1918 through 1923.

“Order prevails in Berlin!” You foolish lackeys! Your “order” is built on sand. Tomorrow the revolution will “rise up again, clashing its weapons,” and to your horror it will proclaim with trumpets blazing:
I was, I am, I shall be!

Rosa Luxemburg, 1919


Chronological timeline of the German Revolution

M.I.A. Encyclopedia: Spartacus Rising

Image Gallery


Historical Overviews

A History of the German Republic, by Arthur Rosenberg (1936)

The Wilhelmshaven Revolt, by Ernst Schneider (1943)

The Communist Left in Germany 1918-1921, by Gilles Dauvé and Denis Authier (1976)

...And Red Is The Colour Of Our Flag, by Oskar Hippe (1979)

From Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution, by Robert Sewell (1988)


German Writers and Eyewitnesses to the Revolution


Speech in the Reichstag, by Otto Rühle (1918)

The German Revolution - First Stage, by Anton Pannekoek (1918)

Call for Revolution, by Karl Liebknecht (1918)

To the Workers and Soldiers of the Allied Countries, by Karl Liebknecht (1918)

The Beginning, by Rosa Luxemburg (1918)

Oh! How—German is this Revolution!, by Rosa Luxemburg (1918)

A Call to the Workers of the World, by Rosa Luxemburg (1918)

On the Spartacus Programme, by Rosa Luxemburg (1918)

Order Prevails in Berlin, by Rosa Luxemburg (1919)


The German Elections, by Anton Pannekoek (1919)

The Last Words, by Eugen Leviné (1919)

The Hamburg Revolution, by Heinrich Laufenberg (1919)

Factory Organizations or Trade Unions?, by Fritz Wolffheim (1919)

To the Proletarians of the World, German Communist Party (Spartacists) (1919)

Programme of the KAPD, by Kommunistische Arbeiter-Partei Deutschlands (1920)

Appeal to the Proletariat of Germany!, by Kommunistische Arbeiter-Partei Deutschlands (1920)

Report on the Political Situation, by Alexander Schwab (1920)

World Revolution and Communist Tactics, by Anton Pannekoek (1920)

The Revolution is not a Party Affair, by Otto Rühle (1920)

The 'Infantile Disorder' and the Third International, by Franz Pfemfert (1920)

Open Letter to Comrade Lenin, by Herman Gorter (1920)

Lenin's Infantile Disorder... and the Third International, by Franz Pfemfert (1920)

The Lessons of the "March Action", by Herman Gorter (1921)

Indictment against Bourgeois Society, by Max Hoelz (1921)

Extracts from a Manifesto of the E.C. of the United German Communist Party, (1921)

The Path of Dr. Levi: The Path of the V.K.P.D., by Communist Workers Party of Germany (K.A.P.D.) (1921)

From the Bourgeois to the Proletarian Revolution, by Otto Rühle (1924)

November, by Karl Radek (1926)

Origins of the Movement for Workers Councils in Germany, by G.I.K. (1938)

The German Revolution, by Paul Mattick (1983—posthumous)


Russian and Comintern Writers

Report On Our Organisation. Founding Congress Of The KPD (Spartakus), by Hugo Eberlein (1918)


To Comrades Paul Levi, Clara Zetkin, Eberlein And The Other Members Of The Cc. Of The Communist Party Of Germany Letter To The Central Committee Of The Communist Party Of Germany Regarding The Split, by V.I. Lenin (1919)

On The Appeal Of The German Independents, by V.I. Lenin (1919)

To the Communist Comrades Who Belonged to the United “Communist Party of Germany” And Have Now Formed a New Party, by V.I. Lenin (1919)

Reply To The Letter Of The Independent Social-Democratic Party of Germany Draft (Or Theses) Of The R.C.P.’s, by V.I. Lenin (1920)

Letter To The German and the French Workers Regarding The Discussion On The Second Congress Of The Communist International, by V.I. Lenin (1920)

A Letter to German Communists, by V.I. Lenin (1921)


Paul Levi and Some “Lefts”, by Leon Trotsky (1922)

Report on the Communist International, by Leon Trotsky (1922)

From talk with the American Senator King, [Is it possible that the USSR may intervene in the event of revolution in Germany?], by Leon Trotsky (1923)

Letter to the editorial board of Rote Fahne, by Leon Trotsky (1923)

Report to the 3rd Moscow Provincial Congress of the All-Russia Union of Metal-Workers, October 19, 1923, [Report on the German Revolution] By Leon Trotsky (1923)

Report to the 8th All-Russia Congress of the Transport Workers’ Union, October 20, 1923, [Analysis of the German Revolution and the state of the German Economy] By Leon Trotsky (1923)

The Present Situation in Germany, [The present situation and our tasks in building the army. Report to the 3rd All-Union Conference of Political Workers in the Red Army and the Red Navy, October 21, 1923] By Leon Trotsky (1923)


Histories of the German Communist Party [KPD]

The Decline, Disorientation and Decomposition of a Leadership: The German Communist Party: From Revolutionary Marxism to Centrism, A History of the German Communist Party 1918-1923, written by Mike Jones, from Revolutionary History magazine, Vol.2 No.3, Autumn 1989. Used by permission.


To volunteer, ask questions, or send comments, mail David Walters.

Last updated on 14 November 2023