Leo Tolstoy Archive
Master of Russian Literature, International Activist, Father of Christian Anarchism

9 September, [O.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November, [O.S. 7 November] 1910

Leo Tolstoy Leo Tolstoy


"...the dissemination of the truth in a society based on coercion was always hindered in one and the same manner, namely, those in power, feeling that the recognition of this truth would undermine their position, consciously or sometimes unconsciously perverted it by explanations and additions quite foreign to it, and also opposed it by open violence."

--Leo Tolstoy, "A Letter to a Hindu" (with Mohatma Gandhi), 1908

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (/ˈtoʊlstɔɪ, ˈtɒl-/; Russian: Лев Николаевич Толстой, tr. Lev Nikoláyevich Tolstóy, IPA: [lʲef nʲɪkɐˈla(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ tɐlˈstoj]; 9 September, [O.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November, [O.S. 7 November] 1910), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. He received nominations for the Nobel Prize in Literature every year from 1902 to 1906 and for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902, and 1909. That he never won is a major controversy.

"A Government, therefore, and especially a Government entrusted with military power, is the most dangerous organization possible."

--Leo Tolstoy, "Patriotism and Government," 1900

Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, Tolstoy is best known for the novels War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1878), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction. He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War. His fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886), Family Happiness (1859), and Hadji Murad (1912). He also wrote plays and numerous philosophical essays.

Leo Tolstoy Leo Tolstoy

"There are people (we ourselves are such) who realize that our Government is very bad, and who struggle against it."

--Leo Tolstoy, "A Letter to Russian Liberals," 1896

In the 1870s, Tolstoy experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work A Confession (1882). His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist. His ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God is Within You (1894), had a profound impact on such pivotal 20th-century figures as Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. He also became a dedicated advocate of Georgism, the economic philosophy of Henry George, which he incorporated into his writing, particularly Resurrection (1899).

"Nothing useful can be poured into a vessel that is already full of what is useless. We must first empty out what is useless."

--Leo Tolstoy, "Letter to a Non-Commissioned Officer," 1898

Source: Wikipedia.org

We are missing many works! Please help us locate these. This list represents not only texts missing from MIA, but these are also texts by Tolstoy generally missing from the Internet. Any help is appreciated!


  1. Non-Fiction Books
  2. Novels
  3. Autobiographical Work
  4. Articles
  5. Collections
  6. Plays
  7. Short Stories
  8. Letters
  9. Biographies, Evaluations, Criticisms
  10. Related Subjects

Non-Fiction Books

Leo Tolstoy

1862: Yasnaya Polyana School

1882: A Confession

1884: My Religion

1887: What to Do? Thoughts Evoked by the Census of Moscow

1887: On the Significance of Science and Art

1887: The Gospel in Brief

1890: Why Do Men Stupefy Themselves? (Translated by the Maudes)

1890: Why Do Men Stupefy Themselves? (Translated by N. H. Dole)

1894: The Kingdom of God is Within You recommended

1895: The Christian Teaching

1897: What is Art?

1900: Some Social Remedies

1904: What Shall We Do? recommended

1906: Tolstoy on Shakespeare

1908: The Law of Violence and the Law of Love recommended

1908: The Teaching of Christ Narrated for Children


Leo Tolstoy

1855: The Cutting of the Forest : The Story of a Yunker

1856: Two Hussars

1859: Family Happiness

1863: The Cossacks : A Tale of 1852

1868: The Decemberists

1869: War and Peace recommended

1877: Anna Karenina recommended

1885: What Men Live By recommended

1886: The Death of Ivan Ilyich

1888: Stories of My Dogs

1888: Scenes from Common Life

1889: The Devil

1891: The Kreutzer Sonata

1895: Master and Man

1898: Father Sergius

1899: The Awakening

1899: The Resurrection

1904: Hadji Murad

Autobiographical Work

1852-1857: Early Age

  1. 1852: Childhood

  2. 1854: Boyhood

  3. 1857: Youth

1888: Sevastopol

1917: The Journal of Leo Tolstoi, Volume 1


Leo Tolstoy

1851: A History of Yesterday

1862: Who Should Learn Writing of Whom; Peasant Children of Us, or We of Peasant Children?

1878: First Recollections

1880: Astonishing Creatures

1887: An Old Acquaintance

1889: The Feast of Enlightenment of January Twenty-Four

1891: The First Step recommended

1891: Church and State

1892: In the Midst of the Starving

1893: Non-Activity

1894: Patriotism and Christianity

1894: The Works of Guy de Maupassant

1895: Shame!

1895: Last Will and Testament

1895: Persecution of Christians in Russia

1896: How to Read the Gospels

1896: To God or Mammon

1896: The Beginning of the End

1896: A Terrible Question

1896: Means of Helping the Population Suffering from Bad Harvests

1896: Help!

1898: Famine or Not Famine

1898: Two Wars

1898: The Emigration of the Doukhobors

1898: Right and Wrong

1899: Too Expensive!

1900: On Anarchy recommended

1900: Patriotism and Government recommended

1900: The Slavery Of Our Times

1900: Religion and Morality

1900: Thou Shalt Not Kill recommended

1900: Thoughts on God

1902: To The Working People recommended

1904: Bethink Yourselves!

1905: The State recommended

1905: A Great Iniquity

1906: An Appeal to Russians: To the Government, the Revolutionists and the People

1906: The Meaning of the Russian Revolution

1906: Tolstoy On Pascal

1906: The End of the Age: An Essay on the Approaching Revolution recommended

1906: Zionism: An Argument against the Ambition for Separate National Existence -- A Plea for Devotion to the Idea of Common Humanity recommended

1907: Why the Christians are in such distress now

1907: Love One Another

1908: I Cannot be Silent!

1908: Diary of a Lunatic

1908: For a Single Word

1909: The Inevitable Revolution recommended

1909: Three Days in the Village

1909: Singing in the Village

1909: Last Message to Mankind recommended

1909: A Comparison of America and Europe

1909: Tolstoy on Lincoln

1911: Must It Be So?

~~: Appeal to Social Reformers

~~: Trust Yourself

~~: Nikolai Palkin

~~: Early Days

Collections and Collected Works

Leo Tolstoy

1887: A Russian Proprietor, and Other Stories

1887: The Invaders, and Other Stories

1889: The Kreutzer Sonata, And Other Stories recommended

1898: Tales from Zoology

1902: Stories from the New Speller

1904: Fables for Children, Stories for Children, Natural Science Stories, Popular Education, Decembrists

1906: Twenty Three Tales recommended

1912: The Forged Coupon, And Other Stories

1916: Tolstoy For the Young


1858: Albert

1886: The Power of Darkness

1886: The First Distiller

1889: Fruits of Culture: Maudes Translation

1890: The Light Shines in Darkness

1891: Fruits of Culture: Victor Yarros Translation

1900: Redemption

1910: The Cause of It All

Short Stories

Leo Tolstoy

1852: A Morning of a Landed Proprietor

1855: Recollections of a Billiard-marker

1856: Meeting a Moscow Acquaintance in the Detachment

1857: Lucerne: From The Recollections Of Prince Nekhliudof

1859: Three Deaths

1862: Polikushka

1863: Kholstomer: The Story of a Horse

1872: The Bear Hunt

1872: The Captive in the Caucasus

1885: The Two Brothers and the Gold: R. N. Bain Translation

1885: The Two Brothers and the Gold: L. Wiener Translation

1885: Evil Allures, But Good Endures: Maudes Translation

1885: Evil Allures, But Good Endures: R. N. Bain Translation

1885: Elias: R. N. Bain Translation

1885: Elias: Maudes Translation

1885: Little Girls Wiser Than Men

1885: A Spark Neglected Burns the House

1885: Two Old Men

1885: The Candle

1885: Where Love is, God is: Translated by the Maudes recommended

1886: How Much Land Does a Man Need?

1886: The Godson

1886: Flow of Water

1886: The Godson (published as "The God Father"): Unknown Translator

1886: The Imp and the Crust

1886: How the Little Devil Earned the Crust of Bread (AKA: The Imp and the Crust, with a different translator)

1886: The Story of Ivan the Fool (A. Norraikow Translation)

1886: The Story of Ivan the Fool (Maudes Translation)

1886: The Three Hermits

1886: The Repentant Sinner

1886: A Grain as Big as a Hen's Egg

1887: Exiled to Siberia

1887: Where Love is There God is Also: Translated by N. H. Dole recommended

1889: A Lost Opportunity

1891: The Empty Drum

1891: Françoise

1892: A Dialogue Among Clever People

1893: The Coffee-House of Surat

1893: Walk in the Light While There is Light recommended

1894: The Young Tsar

1895: Three Parables

1899: Fables Paraphrased from the Indian and Imitations

1899: Yermak, the Conqueror of Siberia

1899: Carthago Delenda Est

1902: The Overthrow of Hell and Its Restoration recommended

1903: Three Questions

1903: After the Dance

1903: Esarhaddon, King of Assyria

1903: Work, Death and Sickness : A Legend

1904: What the Orthodox Religion Really Is

1904: Forward to article On Revolution

1905: Posthumous notes of the hermit Fedor Kuzmích

1905: Alyosha the Pot

1908: The Blessing of Love recommended

1908: The Poor People

1909: There Are No Guilty People recommended

1909: A Talk With a Wayfarer

1909: Traveler and Peasant

1910: Superstition of the State recommended

1910: Khodynka

1910: Croesus and Solon (AKA: Croesus and Fate)

1916: The Great Bear

~~: A Just Judge


Leo Tolstoy

1863: The Porcelain Doll

1872: Letter to Great-Aunt Alexandra on Tolstoy's Children

1880: Letters to His Son

1883: Letter to N. N.

1889: Manual Labour and Intellectual Activity

1894: Reason and Religion

1895: A Reply to Critics and Criticisms

1896: Patriotism, or Peace?

1896: Letter to Ernest Crosby on Non-Resistance

1896: Letter to Russian Liberals recommended

1897: Letter requesting a Nobel Prize for the Doukhobors recommended

1898: Tolstoy Letter on Suicide

1898: Letter to A Non-Comissioned Officer recommended

1899: Letter to a Chinese Gentleman

1900: Letters to Friends on the Personal Christian Life

1900: Causes of the Transvaal War

1901: To the Tsar and His Assistants recommended

1908: Letter to a Hindu recommended

1910: Gandhi Letters

1924: Letter on the Question of William Lloyd Garrison

~~: Letter to Dr. Eugen Heinrich Schmitt: On Serving Governments

~~: Letters on Henry George: Tolstoy on Georgism

~~: Letter to the Peace Conference

Biographies, Evaluations, Criticisms

Leo Tolstoy
From Reformers

1887: Count Tolstoi and the Public Censor — Isabel Hapgood

1889: Great Vegetarian Men — London's Vegetarian Newsletter

1901: Count Tolstoy in Thought and Action — Robert Edward Crozier Long

1902: Prophets of the Century: Leo Tolstoy — John C. Kenworthy

1903: Biography of Leo Tolstoy — Robert Nisbet Bain

1910: Tolstoy Is Dead; Long Fight Over — The New York Times

1911: Tolstoy, Leo — Encyclopedia Britannica

1911: Essays on Russian Novelists: Tolstoy — William Lyon Phelps

1918: The Revivalism of Leo Tolstoy — Otto Heller

1922: Tolstoy's Newly Published Diary and Letters — T. R. Ybarra

1941: Tolstoy and Shakespeare — George Orwell

1994: UNESCO biography of Tolstoy — UNESCO

From Marxists

1908: Leo Tolstoy as the Mirror of the Russian Revolution — Vladimir Lenin

1908: Tolstoy, Poet and Rebel — Leon Trotsky

1910: An Appraisal of Leo Tolstoy — Vladimir Lenin

1910: Tolstoy and the Ethics of Introspection — E. Belfort Bax

1910: L. N. Tolstoy and the Modern Labour Movement — Vladimir Lenin

1910: Tolstoy and the Proletarian Struggle — Vladimir Lenin

1911: Lev Tolstoi and His Epoch — Vladimir Lenin

Related Subjects


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Children's Literature


Natural Science